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*** INDICE DELLE RISORSE ***

Indice      
SERIE TRIBOELETTRICA
TriboElectric Table
Courtesy of www.trifield.com
Column 1 (this col.): Insulator name. Col.2: Charge affinity in nC/J (nano ampsec/wattsec of friction). Col.3: Charge acquired if rubbed with metal (W=weak, N=normal, or consistent with the affinity). Col.4: Notes. Affinity nC/J Metal effect Tests were performed by Bill Lee (Ph.D., physics). 2009 by AlphaLab, Inc. (Trifield.com), which also manufactured the test equipment used. This table may be reproduced only if reproduced in whole.

Polyurethane foam

+60

+N

All materials are good insulators (>1000 T ohm cm) unless noted.

Sorbothane

+58

-W

Slightly conductive. (120 G ohm cm).

Box sealing tape (BOPP)

+55

+W

Non-sticky side. Becomes more negative if sanded down to the BOPP film.

Hair, oily skin

+45

+N

Skin is conductive. Cannot be charged by metal rubbing.

Solid polyurethane, filled

+40

+N

Slightly conductive. (8 T ohm cm).

Magnesium fluoride (MgF2)

+35

+N

Anti-reflective optical coating.

Nylon, dry skin

+30

+N

Skin is conductive. Cannot be charged by metal rubbing.

Machine oil

+29

+N

 

Nylatron (nylon filled with MoS2)

+28

+N

 

Glass (soda)

+25

+N

Slightly conductive. (Depends on humidity).

Paper (uncoated copy)

+10

-W

Most papers & cardboard have similar affinity. Slightly conductive.

Wood (pine)

+7

-W

 

GE brand Silicone II (hardens in air)

+6

+N

More positive than the other silicone chemistry (see below).

Cotton

+5

+N

Slightly conductive. (Depends on humidity).

Nitrile rubber

+3

-W

 

Wool

0

-W

 

Polycarbonate

-5

-W

 

ABS

-5

-N

 

Acrylic (polymethyl methacrylate) and adhesive side of clear carton-sealing and office tape

-10

-N

Several clear tape adhesives are have an affinity almost identical to acrylic, even though various compositions are listed.

Epoxy (circuit board)

-32

-N

 

Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, Buna S)

-35

-N

Sometimes inaccurately called "neoprene" (see below).

Solvent-based spray paints

-38

-N

May vary.

PET (mylar) cloth

-40

-W

 

PET (mylar) solid

-40

+W

 

EVA rubber for gaskets, filled

-55

-N

Slightly conductive. (10 T ohm cm). Filled rubber will usually conduct.

Gum rubber

-60

-N

Barely conductive. (500 T ohm cm).

Hot melt glue

-62

-N

 

Polystyrene

-70

-N

 

Polyimide

-70

-N

 

Silicones (air harden & thermoset, but not GE)

-72

-N

 

Vinyl: flexible (clear tubing)

-75

-N

 

Carton-sealing tape (BOPP), sanded down

-85

-N

Raw surface is very + (see above), but close to PP when sanded.

Olefins (alkenes): LDPE, HDPE, PP

-90

-N

UHMWPE is below. Against metals, PP is more neg than PE.

Cellulose nitrate

-93

-N

 

Office tape backing (vinyl copolymer ?)

-95

-N

 

UHMWPE

-95

-N

 

Neoprene (polychloroprene, not SBR)

-98

-N

Slightly conductive if filled (1.5 T ohm cm).

PVC (rigid vinyl)

-100

-N

 

Latex (natural) rubber

-105

-N

 

Viton, filled

-117

-N

Slightly conductive. (40 T ohm cm).

Epichlorohydrin rubber, filled

-118

-N

Slightly conductive. (250 G ohm cm).

Santoprene rubber

-120

-N

 

Hypalon rubber, filled

-130

-N

Slightly conductive. (30 T ohm cm).

Butyl rubber, filled

-135

-N

Conductive. (900 M ohm cm). Test was done fast.

EDPM rubber, filled

-140

-N

Slightly conductive. (40 T ohm cm).

Teflon

-190

-N

Surface is  fluorine atoms-- very electronegative.

Legenda - Polyurethane (top) tends to charge positive; teflon (bottom) charges negative. The charge affinity listings show relative charging. Two materials with almost equal charge affinity tend not to charge each other much even if rubbed together. Column 3 shows how each material behaves when rubbed against metal, which is much less predictable and repeatable than insulator-to-insulator rubbing. The charging by metal is strongly dependent on the amount of pressure used, and sometimes will even reverse polarity. At very low pressure (used in this table), it is fairly consistent. A letter "N" (normal) in this column means the charge affinity against metal is roughly consistent with the column 2 value. The letter "W" means weaker than expected (i.e., closer to zero than expected or even reversed.) The "+" or "-" indicates the polarity. In all cases where the polarity in col.3 disagrees with col.2, it is a weak (W) effect.

Courtesy of www.trifield.com, Ref.: www.trifield.com/content/tribo-electric-series/


Indice      
SUSCETTIBILITÀ E PERMEABILITÀ ELETTROMAGNETICA

Magnetic susceptibility and permeability data for selected materials

The following table should be used with caution as the permeability of ferromagnetic materials varies greatly with field strength. For example 4% Si steel has an initial relative permeability (at or near 0T) of 2,000 and a maximum of 35,000 and, indeed, the relative permeability of any material at a sufficiently high field strength tends to 1.

Medium

Susceptibility χm
(volumetric SI)

Permeability μ
[H/m]

Relative Permeability
μ/μ0

Magnetic field

Frequency max.

Metglas

1.25

1,000,000

at 0.5 T

100 kHz

Nanoperm

10×10−2

80,000

at 0.5 T

10 kHz

Mu-metal

2.5×10−2

20,000

at 0.002 T

Mu-metal

50,000

Permalloy

8,000

1.0×10−2

8,000

at 0.002 T

Electrical steel

5.0×10−3

4,000

at 0.002 T

Ferritic Stainless Steel (annealed)

1000 - 1800

Martensitic Stainless Steel (annealed)

750 - 950

Ferrite (manganese zinc)

>8.0×10−4

640 (or more)

100 kHz ~ 1 MHz

Ferrite (nickel zinc)

2.0×10−5 – 8.0×10−4

16–640

100 kHz ~ 1 MHz

Carbon Steel

8.75×10−4

100

at 0.002 T

Nickel

1.25×10−4

100 – 600

at 0.002 T

Martensitic Stainless Steel (hardened)

40 - 95

Austenitic Stainless Steel

1.003 - 7

Neodymium magnet

1.05

Platinum

1.2569701×10−6

1.000265

Aluminum

2.22×10−5

1.2566650×10−6

1.000022

Wood

1.00000043

Air

1.2566375×10−6

1.00000037

Concrete (dry)

1

Vacuum

0

π4×10−70)

1

Hydrogen

−2.2×10−9

1.2566371×10−6

1.0000000

Teflon

1.2567×10−6

1.0000

Sapphire

−2.1×10−7

1.2566368×10−6

0.99999976

Copper

−6.4×10−6
or −9.2×10−6

1.2566290×10−6

0.999994

Water

−8.0×10−6

1.2566270×10−6

0.999992

Bismuth

−1.66×10−4

0.999834

Superconductors

−1

0

0

Ref.: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permeability_%28electromagnetism%29


Indice      
POTENZIALI DI ELETTRODO STANDARD (Potenziali standard di riduzione)

Standard electrode potential

The values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode and are for the following conditions:

  • A temperature of 298.15 K (25 °C);

  • An effective concentration of 1 mol/L for each aqueous species or a species in a mercury amalgam;

  • A partial pressure of 101.325 kPa (absolute) (1 atm, 1.01325 bar) for each gaseous reagent. This pressure is used because most literature data are still given for this value rather than for the current standard of 100 kPa.

  • An activity of unity for each pure solid, pure liquid, or for water (solvent).

Legend: (s) – solid; (l) – liquid; (g) – gas; (aq) – aqueous (default for all charged species); (Hg) – amalgam.


Half-reaction

(V)

Sr+ +  e Sr

 −3.80

Ca+ +  e Ca

 −3.80

Pr3+ +  e Pr2+

 −3.1

32N2(g) +  H+ +  e HN3(aq)

 −3.09

Li+ +  e Li(s)

 −3.0401

N2(g) + 4 H2O + 2 e 2 NH2OH(aq) + 2 OH

 −3.04

Cs+ +  e Cs(s)

 −3.026

Ca(OH)2 + 2 e Ca + 2 OH-

 −3.02

Er3+ +  e Er2+

 −3.0

Ba(OH)2 + 2 e Ba + 2 OH-

 −2.99

Rb+ +  e Rb(s)

 −2.98

K+ +  e K(s)

 −2.931

Ba2+ + 2 e Ba(s)

 −2.912

La(OH)3(s) + 3 e La(s) + 3 OH

 −2.90

Fr+ +  e Fr

 −2.9

Sr2+ + 2 e Sr(s)

 −2.899

Sr(OH)2 + 2 e Sr + 2 OH-

 −2.88

Ca2+ + 2 e Ca(s)

 −2.868

Eu2+ + 2 e Eu(s)

 −2.812

Ra2+ + 2 e Ra(s)

 −2.8

Ho3+ +  e Ho2+

 −2.8

Bk3+ +  e Bk2+

 −2.8

Yb2+ + 2 e Yb

 −2.76

Na+ +  e Na(s)

 −2.71

Mg+ +  e Mg

 −2.70

Nd3+ +  e Nd2+

 −2.7

Mg(OH)2 + 2 e Mg + 2 OH-

 −2.690

Sm2+ + 2 e Sm

 −2.68

Be2O32- + 3 H2O + 4 e 2 Be + 6 OH-

 −2.63

Pm3+ +  e Pm2+

 −2.6

Dy3+ +  e Dy2+

 −2.6

No2+ + 2 e No

 −2.50

HfO(OH)2 + H2O + 4 e Hf + 4 OH-

 −2.50

Th(OH)4 + 4 e Th + 4 OH-

 −2.48

Md2+ + 2 e Md

 −2.40

Tm2+ + 2 e Tm

 −2.4

La3+ + 3 e La(s)

 −2.379

Y3+ + 3 e Y(s)

 −2.372

Mg2+ + 2 e Mg(s)

 −2.372

ZrO(OH)2(s) +  H2O + 4 e Zr(s) + 4 OH

 −2.36

Pr3+ + 3 e Pr

 −2.353

Ce3+ + 3 e Ce

 −2.336

Er3+ + 3 e Er

 −2.331

Ho3+ + 3 e Ho

 −2.33

H2AlO3- + H2O + 3 e Al + 4 OH-

 −2.33

Nd3+ + 3 e Nd

 −2.323

Tm3+ + 3 e Tm

 −2.319

Al(OH)3(s) + 3 e Al(s) + 3 OH

 −2.31

Sm3+ + 3 e Sm

 −2.304

Fm2+ + 2 e Fm

 −2.30

Am3+ +  e Am2+

 −2.3

Dy3+ + 3 e Dy

 −2.295

Lu3+ + 3 e Lu

 −2.28

Tb3+ + 3 e Tb

 −2.28

Gd3+ + 3 e Gd

 −2.279

H2 + 2 e 2 H-

 −2.23

Es2+ + 2 e Es

 −2.23

Pm2+ + 2 e Pm

 −2.2

Tm3+ +  e Tm2+

 −2.2

Dy2+ + 2 e Dy

 −2.2

Ac3+ + 3 e Ac

 −2.20

Yb3+ + 3 e Yb

 −2.19

Cf2+ + 2 e Cf

 −2.12

Nd2+ + 2 e Nd

 −2.1

Ho2+ + 2 e Ho

 −2.1

Sc3+ + 3 e Sc(s)

 −2.077

AlF63- + 3 e Al + 6 F-

 −2.069

Am3+ + 3 e Am

 −2.048

Cm3+ + 3 e Cm

 −2.04

Pu3+ + 3 e Pu

 −2.031

Pr2+ + 2 e Pr

 −2.0

Er2+ + 2 e Er

 −2.0

Eu3+ + 3 e Eu

 −1.991

Lr3+ + 3 e Lr

 −1.96

Cf3+ + 3 e Cf

 −1.94

Es3+ + 3 e Es

 −1.91

Pa4+ +  e Pa3+

 −1.9

Am2+ + 2 e Am

 −1.9

Th4+ + 4 e Th

 −1.899

Fm3+ + 3 e Fm

 −1.89

Np3+ + 3 e Np

 −1.856

Be2+ + 2 e Be

 −1.847

H2PO2- +  e P + 2 OH-

 −1.82

U3+ + 3 e U

 −1.798

Sr2+ + 2 e Sr/Hg

 −1.793

H2BO3- + H2O + 3 e B + 4 OH-

 −1.79

ThO2 + 4H+ + 4 e Th + 2 H2O

 −1.789

HfO2+ + 2 H+ + 4 e Hf + H2O

 −1.724

HPO32- + 2 H2O + 3 e P + 5 OH-

 −1.71

SiO32- + H2O + 4 e Si + 6 OH-

 −1.697

Al3+ + 3 e Al(s)

 −1.662

Ti2+ + 2 e Ti(s)

 −1.63

ZrO2(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e Zr(s) + 2 H2O

 −1.553

Zr4+ + 4 e Zr(s)

 −1.45

Ti3+ + 3 e Ti(s)

 −1.37

TiO(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e Ti(s) +  H2O

 −1.31

Ti2O3(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e 2 TiO(s) +  H2O

 −1.23

Zn(OH)42− + 2 e Zn(s) + 4 OH

 −1.199

Mn2+ + 2 e Mn(s)

 −1.185

Fe(CN)64− + 6 H+ + 2  e Fe(s) + 6HCN(aq)

 −1.16

Te(s) + 2 e Te2−

 −1.143

V2+ + 2 e V(s)

 −1.13

Nb3+ + 3 e Nb(s)

 −1.099

Sn(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e SnH4(g)

 −1.07

SiO2(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e Si(s) + 2 H2O

 −0.91

B(OH)3(aq) + 3 H+ + 3 e B(s) + 3 H2O

 −0.89

Fe(OH)2(s) + 2 e Fe(s) + 2 OH

 −0.89

Fe2O3(s) + 3 H2O + 2 e 2Fe(OH)2(s) + 2 OH

 −0.86

TiO2+ + 2 H+ + 4 e Ti(s) +  H2O

 −0.86

2 H2O + 2 e H2(g) + 2 OH

 −0.8277

Bi(s) + 3 H+ + 3 e BiH3

 −0.8

Zn2+ + 2 e Zn(Hg)

 −0.7628

Zn2+ + 2 e Zn(s)

 −0.7618

Ta2O5(s) + 10 H+ + 10 e 2 Ta(s) + 5 H2O

 −0.75

Cr3+ + 3 e Cr(s)

 −0.74

[Au(CN)2] +  e Au(s) + 2 CN

 −0.60

Ta3+ + 3 e Ta(s)

 −0.6

PbO(s) +  H2O + 2 e Pb(s) + 2 OH

 −0.58

2 TiO2(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e Ti2O3(s) +  H2O

 −0.56

Ga3+ + 3 e Ga(s)

 −0.53

U4+ +  e U3+

 −0.52

H3PO2(aq) +  H+ +  e P(white)[note 2] + 2 H2O

 −0.508

H3PO3(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e H3PO2(aq) +  H2O

 −0.499

H3PO3(aq) + 3 H+ + 3 e P(red)[note 2] + 3 H2O

 −0.454

Fe2+ + 2 e Fe(s)

 −0.44

2 CO2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e HOOCCOOH(aq)

 −0.43

Cr3+ +  e Cr2+

 −0.42

Cd2+ + 2 e Cd(s)

 −0.40

GeO2(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e GeO(s) +  H2O

 −0.37

Cu2O(s) +  H2O + 2 e 2 Cu(s) + 2 OH

 −0.360

PbSO4(s) + 2 e Pb(s) + SO42−

 −0.3588

PbSO4(s) + 2 e Pb(Hg) + SO42−

 −0.3505

Eu3+ +  e Eu2+

 −0.35

In3+ + 3 e In(s)

 −0.34

Tl+ +  e Tl(s)

 −0.34

Ge(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e GeH4(g)

 −0.29

Co2+ + 2 e Co(s)

 −0.28

H3PO4(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e H3PO3(aq) +  H2O

 −0.276

V3+ +  e V2+

 −0.26

Ni2+ + 2 e Ni(s)

 −0.25

As(s) + 3 H+ + 3 e AsH3(g)

 −0.23

AgI(s) +  e Ag(s) + I

 −0.15224

MoO2(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e Mo(s) + 2 H2O

 −0.15

Si(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e SiH4(g)

 −0.14

Sn2+ + 2 e Sn(s)

 −0.13

O2(g) +  H+ +  e HO2•(aq)

 −0.13

Pb2+ + 2 e Pb(s)

 −0.13

WO2(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e W(s) + 2 H2O

 −0.12

P(red) + 3 H+ + 3 e PH3(g)

 −0.111

CO2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e HCOOH(aq)

 −0.11

Se(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e H2Se(g)

 −0.11

CO2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e CO(g) +  H2O

 −0.11

SnO(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e Sn(s) +  H2O

 −0.10

SnO2(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e SnO(s) +  H2O

 −0.09

WO3(aq) + 6 H+ + 6 e W(s) + 3 H2O

 −0.09

P(white) + 3 H+ + 3 e PH3(g)

 −0.063

Fe3+ + 3 e Fe(s)

 −0.04

HCOOH(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e HCHO(aq) +  H2O

 −0.03

2 H+ + 2 e H2(g)

   0.0000

AgBr(s) +  e Ag(s) + Br

 +0.07133

S4O62− + 2 e 2 S2O32−

 +0.08

Fe3O4(s) + 8 H+ + 8 e 3 Fe(s) + 4 H2O

 +0.085

N2(g) + 2 H2O + 6 H+ + 6 e 2 NH4OH(aq)

 +0.092

HgO(s) +  H2O + 2 e Hg(l) + 2 OH

 +0.0977

Cu(NH3)42+ +  e Cu(NH3)2+ + 2 NH3

 +0.10

Ru(NH3)63+ +  e Ru(NH3)62+

 +0.10

N2H4(aq) + 4 H2O + 2 e 2 NH4+ + 4 OH

 +0.11

H2MoO4(aq) + 6 H+ + 6 e Mo(s) + 4 H2O

 +0.11

Ge4+ + 4 e Ge(s)

 +0.12

C(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e CH4(g)

 +0.13

HCHO(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e CH3OH(aq)

 +0.13

S(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e H2S(g)

 +0.14

Sn4+ + 2 e Sn2+

 +0.15

Cu2+ +  e Cu+

 +0.159

HSO4 + 3 H+ + 2 e SO2(aq) + 2 H2O

 +0.16

UO22+ +  e UO2+

 +0.163

SO42− + 4 H+ + 2 e SO2(aq) + 2 H2O

 +0.17

TiO2+ + 2 H+ +  e Ti3+ +  H2O

 +0.19

SbO+ + 2 H+ + 3 e Sb(s) +  H2O

 +0.20

AgCl(s) +  e Ag(s) + Cl

 +0.22233

H3AsO3(aq) + 3 H+ + 3 e As(s) + 3 H2O

 +0.24

GeO(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e Ge(s) +  H2O

 +0.26

UO2+ + 4 H+ +  e U4+ + 2 H2O

 +0.273

Re3+ + 3 e Re(s)

 +0.300

Bi3+ + 3 e Bi(s)

 +0.308

VO2+ + 2 H+ +  e V3+ +  H2O

 +0.34

Cu2+ + 2 e Cu(s)

 +0.340

[Fe(CN)6]3− +  e [Fe(CN)6]4−

 +0.36

O2(g) + 2 H2O + 4 e 4 OH(aq)

 +0.40

H2MoO4 + 6 H+ + 3 e Mo3+ + 2 H2O

 +0.43

CH3OH(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e CH4(g) +  H2O

 +0.50

SO2(aq) + 4 H+ + 4 e S(s) + 2 H2O

 +0.50

Cu+ +  e Cu(s)

 +0.520

CO(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e C(s) +  H2O

 +0.52

I3 + 2 e 3 I

 +0.53

I2(s) + 2 e 2 I

 +0.54

[AuI4] + 3 e Au(s) + 4 I

 +0.56

H3AsO4(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e H3AsO3(aq) +  H2O

 +0.56

[AuI2] +  e Au(s) + 2 I

 +0.58

MnO4 + 2 H2O + 3 e MnO2(s) + 4 OH

 +0.59

S2O32 − + 6 H+ + 4 e 2 S(s) + 3 H2O

 +0.60

Fc+ +  e Fc(s)

 +0.641

H2MoO4(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e MoO2(s) + 2 H2O

 +0.65

O2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e  H2O2(aq)

 +0.70

Tl3+ + 3 e Tl(s)

 +0.72

PtCl62− + 2 e PtCl42− + 2 Cl

 +0.726

H2SeO3(aq) + 4 H+ + 4 e Se(s) + 3 H2O

 +0.74

PtCl42− + 2 e Pt(s) + 4 Cl

 +0.758

Fe3+ +  e Fe2+

 +0.77

Ag+ +  e Ag(s)

 +0.7996

Hg22+ + 2 e 2 Hg(l)

 +0.80

NO3(aq) + 2 H+ +  e NO2(g) +  H2O

 +0.80

2FeO42− + 5 H2O + 6 e Fe2O3(s) + 10  OH

 +0.81

[AuBr4] + 3 e Au(s) + 4 Br

 +0.85

Hg2+ + 2 e Hg(l)

 +0.85

[IrCl6]2- +  e [IrCl6]3-

 +0.87[4]

MnO4 +  H+ +  e HMnO4

 +0.90

2 Hg2+ + 2 e Hg22+

 +0.91

Pd2+ + 2 e Pd(s)

 +0.915

[AuCl4] + 3 e Au(s) + 4 Cl

 +0.93

MnO2(s) + 4 H+ +  e Mn3+ + 2 H2O

 +0.95

[AuBr2] +  e Au(s) + 2 Br

 +0.96

[HXeO6]3− + 2 H2O + 2 e + [HXeO4] + 4  OH

 +0.99

H6TeO6(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e TeO2(s) + 4 H2O

 +1.02

Br2(l) + 2 e 2 Br

 +1.066

Br2(aq) + 2 e 2 Br

 +1.0873

IO3 + 5 H+ + 4 e HIO(aq) + 2 H2O

 +1.13

[AuCl2] +  e Au(s) + 2 Cl

 +1.15

HSeO4 + 3 H+ + 2 e H2SeO3(aq) +  H2O

 +1.15

Ag2O(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e 2 Ag(s) +  H2O

 +1.17

ClO3 + 2 H+ +  e ClO2(g) +  H2O

 +1.18

[HXeO6]3− + 5 H2O + 8  e Xe(g) + 11 OH

 +1.18

Pt2+ + 2 e Pt(s)

 +1.188

ClO2(g) +  H+ +  e HClO2(aq)

 +1.19

2 IO3 + 12 H+ + 10 e I2(s) + 6 H2O

 +1.20

ClO4 + 2 H+ + 2 e ClO3 +  H2O

 +1.20

O2(g) + 4 H+ + 4 e 2 H2O

 +1.229

MnO2(s) + 4 H+ + 2 e Mn2+ + 2 H2O

 +1.23

[HXeO4] + 3 H2O + 6  e Xe(g) + 7 OH

 +1.24

Tl3+ + 2 e Tl+

 +1.25

Cr2O72− + 14 H+ + 6 e 2 Cr3+ + 7 H2O

 +1.33

Cl2(g) + 2 e 2 Cl

 +1.36

CoO2(s) + 4 H+ +  e Co3+ + 2 H2O

 +1.42

2 NH3O H+ +  H+ + 2 e N2H5+ + 2 H2O

 +1.42

2 HIO(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e I2(s) + 2 H2O

 +1.44

Ce4+ +  e Ce3+

 +1.44

BrO3 + 5 H+ + 4 e HBrO(aq) + 2 H2O

 +1.45

β-PbO2(s) + 4 H+ + 2 e Pb2+ + 2 H2O

 +1.460

α-PbO2(s) + 4 H+ + 2 e Pb2+ + 2 H2O

 +1.468

2 BrO3 + 12 H+ + 10 e Br2(l) + 6 H2O

 +1.48

2ClO3 + 12 H+ + 10 e Cl2(g) + 6 H2O

 +1.49

MnO4 + 8 H+ + 5 e Mn2+ + 4 H2O

 +1.51

HO2 +  H+ +  e  H2O2(aq)

 +1.51

Au3+ + 3 e Au(s)

 +1.52

NiO2(s) + 4 H+ + 2 e Ni2+ + 2 OH

 +1.59

2 HClO(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e Cl2(g) + 2 H2O

 +1.63

Ag2O3(s) + 6 H+ + 4 e 2 Ag+ + 3 H2O

 +1.67

HClO2(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e HClO(aq) +  H2O

 +1.67

Pb4+ + 2 e Pb2+

 +1.69

MnO4 + 4 H+ + 3 e MnO2(s) + 2 H2O

 +1.70

AgO(s) + 2 H+ +  e Ag+ +  H2O

 +1.77

H2O2(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e 2 H2O

 +1.78

Co3+ +  e Co2+

 +1.82

Au+ +  e Au(s)

 +1.83

BrO4 + 2 H+ + 2 e BrO3 +  H2O

 +1.85

Ag2+ +  e Ag+

 +1.98

S2O82− + 2 e 2 SO42−

 +2.010

O3(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e O2(g) +  H2O

 +2.075

HMnO4 + 3 H+ + 2 e MnO2(s) + 2 H2O

 +2.09

XeO3(aq) + 6 H+ + 6  e Xe(g) + 3 H2O

 +2.12

H4XeO6(aq) + 8 H+ + 8  e Xe(g) + 6  H2O

 +2.18

FeO42− + 3 e + 8 H+ Fe3+ + 4 H2O

 +2.20

XeF2(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e Xe(g) + 2HF(aq)

 +2.32

H4XeO6(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e XeO3(aq) +  H2O

 +2.42

F2(g) + 2 e 2 F

 +2.87

F2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e 2 HF(aq)

 +3.05

Ref.: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_of_standard_electrode_potentials


Indice      
TAVOLA PERIODICA DEGLI ELEMENTI (standard aggiornata)
Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Period
1 1
H

2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be

5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg

13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
*
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
**
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Uuq
115
Uup
116
Uuh
117
Uus
118
Uuo

* Lanthanoids 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** Actinoids 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

Indice      
TAVOLA PERIODICA DEGLI ELEMENTI SECONDO MASSIMO CORBUCCI

Ref.
http://www.atomo112.info/download/Nuova_Tavola_Periodica.pdf

Indice      
SPETTRI DI SORGENTI LUMINOSE

Indice      
SPETTRO ELETTROMAGNETICO

Indice      
MONITOR ATTIVITÀ SOLARE

Indice      
MONITOR E CALCOLATORE DELLE FASI LUNARI

Indice      
TEMPERATURE DEL PUNTO DI RUGIADA

Indice      
MODELLO STANDARD DELLE PARTICELLE

Indice      
FREQUENZE D.T.M.F. (Dual Tone Multi Frequency)

Indice      
FREQUENZE DEI TONI MUSICALI (keyboard piano)

Indice      
MAGNETISMO - DENSITÀ DEL FLUSSO
tesla [T]:
weber/square meter [Wb/m2]:
weber/square centimeter [Wb/cm2]:
weber/square inch [Wb/in2]:
maxwell/square meter [Mx/m2]:
maxwell/square centimeter [Mx/cm2]:
maxwell/square inch [Mx/in2]:
gauss [Gs, G]:
line/square centimeter:
line/square inch:
gamma:
Indice      
FREQUENZA - LUNGHEZZA D'ONDA
hertz [Hz]:
megahertz [MHz]:
kilohertz [kHz]:
wavelength in metres [m]:
wavelength in micrometres [µm]:
Electron Compton wavelength:
Indice      
CARICA
coulomb [C]:
ampere-hour [A*h]:
ampere-minute [A*min]:
ampere-second [A*s]:
faraday (based on carbon 12):
Elementary charge [e]:
Indice      
DENSITÀ DI CARICA PER UNITÀ DI SUPERFICIE
coulomb/square meter [C/m2]:
coulomb/square centimeter [C/cm2]:
coulomb/square inch [C/in2]:
Indice      
FORZA
newton [N]:
dyne [dyn]:
joule/meter [J/m]:
kilogram-force [kgf]:
pound-force [lbf]:
ounce-force [ozf]:
poundal [pdl]:
pound foot/square second [lb*ft/s2]:
Indice      
ENERGIA
joule [J]:
electron-volt [eV]:
erg:
watt-second [W*s]:
newton meter [N*m]:
horsepower hour [hp*h]:
horsepower (metric) hour:
kilocalorie (IT) [kcal (IT), kcal]:
calorie (IT) [cal (IT), cal]:
Btu (IT) [Btu (IT), Btu]:
dyne centimeter [dyn*cm]:
kilogram-force meter [kgf*m]:
pound-force foot [lbf*ft]:
pound-force inch [lbf*in]:
ounce-force inch [ozf*in]:
foot-pound [ft*lbf]:
inch-pound [in*lbf]:
inch-ounce [in*ozf]:
Rydberg constant:
Indice      
POTENZA
watt [W]:
kilowatt [kW]:
erg/second [erg/s]:
newton meter/second [N*m/s]:
joule/hour [J/h]:
volt ampere [V*A]:
calorie (IT)/hour [cal/h]:
horsepower (metric) [hp (metric)]:
horsepower (electric) [hp (electric)]:
horsepower (water) [hp (water)]:
Btu (IT)/hour [Btu/h]:
Btu (th)/hour [Btu (th)/h]:
foot pound-force/hour [lbf*ft/h]:
pound-foot/hour [lbf*ft/h]:
Indice      
TEMPERATURA
kelvin [K]:
degree Celsius [°C]:
degree Fahrenheit [°F]:
Triple point of water:
Indice      
PRESSIONE
pascal [Pa]:
megapascal [MPa]:
newton/square meter:
newton/square centimeter:
bar:
millibar [mbar]:
dyne/square centimeter:
kilogram-force/square meter:
kilogram-force/sq. cm:
gram-force/sq. centimeter:
pound-force/square foot:
pound-force/square inch:
psi [psi]:
torr [Torr]:
millimeter mercury (0°C):
inch mercury (60°F) [inHg]:
centimeter water (4°C):
atmosphere technical [at]:
Standard atmosphere [atm]:

Categorie di vuoto

Qualità del vuoto

Torr

Pa

Atmosphere

Pressione atmosferica

760

1.013×105

1

Basso vuoto

760 a 25

1×105 a 3×103

9.87×10−1 a 3×10−2

Medio vuoto

25 a 1×10−3

3×103 a 1×10−1

3×10−2 a 9.87×10−7

Alto vuoto

1×10−3 a 1×10−9

1×10−1 a 1×10−7

9.87×10−7 a 9.87×10−13

Vuoto ultra-alto

1×10−9 a 1×10−12

1×10−7 a 1×10−10

9.87×10−13 a 9.87×10−16

Vuoto estremo

< 1×10−12

< 1×10−10

< 9.87×10−16

Spazio esterno

1×10−6 a < 1×10−17

1×10−4 a < 3×10−15

9.87×10−10 a < 2.96×10−20

Vuoto perfetto

0

0

0

Indice      

millimeter [mm]:
micron [µ]:
nanometer [nm]:
mil [mil, thou]:
microinch:
angstrom [A]:
Planck length:
Electron radius (classical):
Indice      
ANGOLI
degree [°]:
radian [rad]:
grad [g]:
Indice      
VELOCITÀ ANGOLARE
degree/second [°/s]:
degree/hour [°/h]:
radian/second [rad/s]:
radian/hour [rad/h]:
revolution/second [r/s]:
revolution/minute [r/min]:
revolution/hour [r/h]:
Convertitori forniti da Unitconversion.org

Indice      
RISORSE ESTERNE (links)

International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC)

Solenoidi (calc.)

Solenoidi a Spirale Piana (calc.)

Thermal expansion (on CLTE)

Converters and Calculators

Electronics Converters and Calculators

Circuit Lab (editor e simulatore)

www.calculatoredge.com (vari)

Graph Paper PDF

Glossario della simbologia matematica

Disegno di spirali logaritmiche (Flash)


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